tRFs and tiRNAs, generated through precise biogenesis processes from tRNA, perform many biological functions as small noncoding RNAs and are associated with many diseases and conditions (Fig.1) . They are known to act as microRNAs in RNA interference; bind protein factors to regulate target mRNA stability; interact with cytochrome c to modulate apoptosis; alter embryonic transcriptional cascades as paternal epigenetic factor in intergenerational inheritance of metabolic disorders; and assemble stress granules in response to stress conditions.
The composition and abundance of tRFs&tiRNAs are highly dependent on the cell type and disease condition, making them excellent biomolecules for biomarkers . For example, the ratio of tRFs&tiRNAs is a good indicator of cancer progression-free survival and a candidate prognostic marker . Also tRNA and tRF&tiRNA populations are highly enriched in biofluids, much more so than microRNAs [3-4].
Figure 1. tRF&tiRNA functions and association with diseases.
Arraystar tRF&tiRNA sequencing service offers the sample-to-data solution. With the wealth of information from our tRF&tiRNA-seq profiling, investigators can easily advance their next step research in this new field of study, following the approaches and applications in the Roadmap for tRF &tiRNA studies.
1.Telonis A.G. et al. (2015) "Dissecting tRNA-derived fragment complexities using personalized transcriptomes reveals novel fragment classes and unexpected dependencies." Oncotarget 6(28):24797-822 [PMID: 26325506]
2.Olvedy M. et al. (2016) "A comprehensive repertoire of tRNA-derived fragments in prostate cancer." Oncotarget [PMID: 27015120]
3.Schageman J. et al. (2013) "The complete exosome workflow solution: from isolation to characterization of RNA cargo." Biomed Res Int 2013:253957 [PMID: 24205503]
4.Dhahbi J.M. et al. (2013) "5' tRNA halves are present as abundant complexes in serum, concentrated in blood cells, and modulated by aging and calorie restriction." BMC Genomics 14:298 [PMID: 23638709]
With the expertise in tRF&tiRNA, Arraystar tRFs&tiRNA sequencing service offers:
• Performance optimized tRFs&tiRNAs sequencing method with rigorous QC process
• Precise annotation and classification system based on tRNA topology and statistical significance.
• Comprehensive tRF & tiRNA collection from all databases.
• tRFs&tiRNAs focused bioinformatics and statistics analyses
• Additional miRNA expression and differential analyses
• Data visualization with publication quality graphics
• Seamless integration with our tRNA series of technologies: tRF&tiRNA-seq, tRNA-seq, tRF&tiRNA PCR array, and tRNA PCR array
The tRF&tiRNA-seq provides a wealth of bioinformatics analyses to better understand their biology and facilitate biomarker applications. As a bonus, microRNA expression analysis is also included.
Expression and differential expression profiling
Figure 1. Expression and differential analysis data tables.
Figure 2. Detailed annotation of tRF&tiRNA sequences, family members, secondary structures, and cleavage sites in tRNAs.
tRF&tiRNA distribution among Small RNA biotypes
Figure 3. The relative abundance of tRF&tiRNA among other small RNAs in the size range, showing the high or even predominant abundance of tRF&tiRNA in many tissue types, highlighting their biological significance and preferred status for biomarker applications in these tissues.