nrStar™ tRNA PCR Array (H/M)

  • Buy Products
  • tRNA Hot Topics
  • Array Design Concept
  • Database
  • Publications
  • Manual and Tool

nrStar™ tRNA PCR Arrays profile 185 Human/Mouse tRNAs, covering all the nuclear anticodon isoacceptors catalogued in GtRNAdb, providing insights on both the isoacceptor and the specific isodecoder expression.

• Profile all the nuclear anti-codon isoacceptors provided by GtRNAdb 
• Profile all tRNA isodecoders distinguishable by real-time PCR
• Focus on the high confidence tRNAs (tRNAScan score >50*)
• Fully experimentally validated primers across numerous tissues and cell lines
• Easy-to-use convenient panel to obtain results in hours
• The most reliable tool for analyzing the tRNA anti-codon isoacceptors and isodecoders, applied with rtStar™ tRNA Pretreatment & First-Strand cDNA Synthesis Kit (Cat# AS-FS-004), a highly efficient system that removes methylations on the tRNA to obtain a new level of accuracy on the tRNA detection. Learn details>

*Applicable to Human tRNA PCR Array only

The entire tRNA qPCR using the panels requires additional rtStar™ tRNA Pretreatment & First-Strand cDNA Synthesis Kit (Cat# AS-FS-004) and Arraystar SYBR® Green Real-time qPCR Master Mix  sold separately.

Watch Video> tRNAs - The Rising Star of Wobble Gene Regulators

Product NameCatalog NoSizePrice
nrStar™ Human tRNA PCR Array V2.0 AS-NR-001H-1 384-well (2*192) / plate
Add To Cart
nrStar™ Human tRNA PCR Array V2.0 (Roche Light Cycler 480) AS-NR-001H-1-R 384-well (2*192) / plate
Add To Cart
nrStar™ Mouse tRNA PCR Array AS-NR-001M-1 384-well (2*192) / plate
Add To Cart
nrStar™ Mouse tRNA PCR Array (Roche Light Cycler 480) AS-NR-001M-1-R 384-well (2*192) / plate
Add To Cart

Selected reviews on tRNA biology, especially the translational regulation role
1. Pan T: Modifications and functional genomics of human transfer RNA. Cell Res 2018.[PMID: 29463900]
2. Schimmel P: The emerging complexity of the tRNA world: mammalian tRNAs beyond protein synthesis. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2018, 19(1):45-58.[PMID: 28875994]
3. Hanson G, Coller J: Codon optimality, bias and usage in translation and mRNA decay. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2018, 19(1):20-30.[PMID: 29018283]
4. Truitt ML, Ruggero D: New frontiers in translational control of the cancer genome. Nat Rev Cancer 2016, 16(5):288-304.[PMID: 27112207]
5. Kirchner S, Ignatova Z: Emerging roles of tRNA in adaptive translation, signalling dynamics and disease. Nat Rev Genet 2015, 16(2):98-112.[PMID: 25534324]
6. Suzuki T, Nagao A, Suzuki T: Human mitochondrial tRNAs: biogenesis, function, structural aspects, and diseases. Annu Rev Genet 2011, 45:299-329.[PMID: 21910628]

Original papers on the physiological importance of tRNA isoacceptors and isodecoders 
1. Dittmar KA, Goodenbour JM, Pan T: Tissue-specific differences in human transfer RNA expression. PLoS Genet 2006, 2(12):e221.[PMID: 17194224]
2. Pavon-Eternod M et al: tRNA over-expression in breast cancer and functional consequences. Nucleic Acids Res 2009, 37(21):7268-7280.[PMID: 19783824]
3. Gingold H et al: A dual program for translation regulation in cellular proliferation and differentiation. Cell 2014, 158(6):1281-1292.[PMID: 25215487]
4. Ishimura R et al: RNA function. Ribosome stalling induced by mutation of a CNS-specific tRNA causes neurodegeneration. Science 2014, 345(6195):455-459.[PMID: 25061210]
5. Goodarzi H et al: Modulated Expression of Specific tRNAs Drives Gene Expression and Cancer Progression. Cell 2016, 165(6):1416-1427.[PMID: 27259150]

The impacts of tRNA pool

The tRNA pool, composed of tRNA isoacceptor families for each amino acid, has become an important source of insider information in the study of codon usage, protein translation efficiency and accuracy, biological processes and human diseases. Also a codon may be decoded by a near-cognate tRNA with a single mismatch. The cognate:near-cognate tRNA ratios in the tRNA pool are dynamically regulated to affect translation efficiency, fidelity, and transcript stability. Under various conditions, tRNA pools can alter in ways to maintain homeostasis or to favor a gene expression program [1].

Functional significance of tRNA isodecoders

tRNAs with the same anticodon but having different body sequences are “isodecoders”. The highly conserved tRNA isodecoder sequences can exhibit different tissue-specific expression and perform significantly different functions. For example, one of five mouse tRNA-Arg/UCU isodecoders is a central nervous system specific isodecoder, which has new functions of maintaining cell homeostasis and preventing neurodegeneration (Fig. 1).

Mouse tRNA-Arg-TCT isodecoder cDNA sequences

Fig.1. Mouse tRNA-Arg-TCT isodecoder cDNA sequences. Compared with the “housekeeping” isodecoders, the CNS-Specific tRNA isodecoder gains new functions in cell homeostasis and preventing neurodegeneration [2].


[1] Gavin H. et al. (2014) "Codon optimality, bias and usage in translation and mRNA decay." Molecular Cell Biology 19, 20-30 [PMID: 29018283]

[2] Ishimura R. et al. (2014) "RNA function. Ribosome stalling induced by mutation of a CNS-specific tRNA causes neurodegeneration." Science 345(6195):455-9 [PMID: 25061210]

Human V2.0 tRNA List (GtRNAdb and mitotRNAdb)

1 Ala-AGC-1 Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-1-1/ Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-2-1~2/ Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-3-1/ Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-4-1/ Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-5-1/ Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-6-1/ Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-7-1/ Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-8-1~2/ Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-10-1/ Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-11-1/ Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-12-1~3/ Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-13-1~2/ Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-14-1/ Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-15-1
2 Ala-AGC-2 Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-3-1
3 Ala-AGC-3 Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-9-1~2
4 Ala-AGC-4 Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-10-1

adobe_pdf_small Full List>>

Mouse tRNA List (GtRNAdb and mitotRNAdb)

1 Ala-AGC-1 Mus_musculus_tRNA-Ala-AGC-4-1~2/ Mus_musculus_tRNA-Ala-AGC-5-1~3/ Mus_musculus_tRNA-Ala-AGC-6-1/ Mus_musculus_tRNA-Ala-AGC-7-1/ Mus_musculus_tRNA-Ala-AGC-10-1
2 Ala-AGC-2 Mus_musculus_tRNA-Ala-AGC-2-1~2
3 Ala-AGC-3 Mus_musculus_tRNA-Ala-AGC-3-1
4 Ala-AGC-4 Mus_musculus_tRNA-Ala-AGC-7-1
5 Ala-AGC-5 Mus_musculus_tRNA-Ala-AGC-9-1
6 Ala-AGC-6 Mus_musculus_tRNA-Ala-AGC-10-1
7 Ala-AGC-7 Mus_musculus_tRNA-Ala-AGC-14-1

adobe_pdf_small Full List>>

Human V1.0 tRNA List (GtRNAdb and Transfer RNA database)

1 Ala-AGC tdbD00003849/tdbD00003850
2 Ala-CGC tdbD00003856/tdbD00003855
3 Ala-GGC tRNA-Ala-GGC-chr19-3
4 Ala-TGC tdbD00003861/tdbD00003862

adobe_pdf_small Full List>>

PUS1 regulates erythropoiesis via tRNA pseudouridylation and cytoplasmic translation. Shi D, et al, iScience, 2024

N2-methylguanosine modifications on human tRNAs and snRNA U6 are important for cell proliferation, protein translation and pre-mRNA splicing. Wang C,et al. Nucleic Acids Research, 2023

A critical period of translational control during brain development at codon resolution. Harnett D, et al. Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, 2023

Clinical Significance of High Expression of tRF-Glu-TTC-2 in Prostate Carcinoma and its Effect on Growth. Wang L,et al. American Journal of Men's Health, 2022

Mistranslation Drives Alterations in Protein Levels and the Effects of a Synonymous Variant at the Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Locus. Bayoumi A, et al. Advanced Science, 2021

Nucleoporin TPR promotes tRNA nuclear export and protein synthesis in lung cancer cells. Chen M, et al. PLoS genetics, 2021

Expression and Diagnostic Value of tRNA-Derived Fragments Secreted by Extracellular Vesicles in Hypopharyngeal Carcinoma, Xi J, et al. OncoTargets and Therapy, 2021

tRNA-based prognostic score in predicting survival outcomes of lung adenocarcinomas. Kuang M, et al. International journal of cancer, 2019

DNA damage-induced cell death relies on SLFN11-dependent cleavage of distinct type II tRNAs. Li M, et al. Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, 2018 


adobe_pdf_smallManual_nrStar™ Human tRNA PCR Array_v2.01
adobe_pdf_smallManual_nrStar™ Mouse tRNA PCR Array_v1.02

excelAnalysis tool for nrStar™ Human tRNA PCR Array_v3.02
excelAnalysis Tool for nrStar™ Mouse tRNA PCR Array_v2.02

adobe_pdf_smallInstructions of Human tRNA qPCR data analysis tool

Compatible qPCR Instruments Equipped with a 384-well Format Block:
ABI ViiA™ 7
ABI 7500 & ABI 7500 FAST
ABI 7900HT
ABI QuantStudio™ 5 Real-Time PCR system
ABI QuantStudio™ 6 Flex Real-Time PCR system
ABI QuantStudio™ 7 Flex Real-Time PCR system
ABI QuantStudio™ 12K Flex Real-Time PCR System
Bio-Rad CFX384
Bio-Rad iCycler & iQ Real-Time PCR Systems
Eppendorf Realplex
Stratagene Mx3000
Roche Light Cycler 480