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Product NameCatalog NoSizePrice
nrStar™ Human tRNA PCR Array V2.0 AS-NR-001H-1 384-well (2*192) / plate $435.00
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nrStar™ Human tRNA PCR Array V2.0 (Roche Light Cycler 480) AS-NR-001H-1-R 384-well (2*192) / plate $435.00
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nrStar™ Mouse tRNA PCR Array AS-NR-001M-1 384-well (2*192) / plate $435.00
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nrStar™ Mouse tRNA PCR Array (Roche Light Cycler 480) AS-NR-001M-1-R 384-well (2*192) / plate $435.00
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nrStar™ Human tRNA PCR Array V1.0 AS-NR-001-1 384-well (4*96) / plate $435.00
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• Profile all the nuclear anti-codon isoacceptors provided by GtRNAdb 
• Profile all tRNA isodecoders distinguishable by real-time PCR
• Focus on the high confidence human tRNAs (tRNAScan score >50)
• Fully experimentally validated primers across numerous tissues and cell lines
• Easy-to-use convenient panel to obtain results in hours
• The most reliable tool for analyzing the tRNA anti-codon isoacceptors and isodecoders, applied with rtStar™ tRNA-optimized First-Strand cDNA Synthesis Kit (Cat# AS-FS-004), a highly efficient system that removes methylations on the RNA to obtain a new level of accuracy on the tRNA detection. Learn details>


Selected reviews on tRNA biology, especially the translational regulation role
1. Pan T: Modifications and functional genomics of human transfer RNA. Cell Res 2018.[PMID: 29463900]
2. Schimmel P: The emerging complexity of the tRNA world: mammalian tRNAs beyond protein synthesis. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2018, 19(1):45-58.[PMID: 28875994]
3. Hanson G, Coller J: Codon optimality, bias and usage in translation and mRNA decay. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2018, 19(1):20-30.[PMID: 29018283]
4. Truitt ML, Ruggero D: New frontiers in translational control of the cancer genome. Nat Rev Cancer 2016, 16(5):288-304.[PMID: 27112207]
5. Kirchner S, Ignatova Z: Emerging roles of tRNA in adaptive translation, signalling dynamics and disease. Nat Rev Genet 2015, 16(2):98-112.[PMID: 25534324]
6. Suzuki T, Nagao A, Suzuki T: Human mitochondrial tRNAs: biogenesis, function, structural aspects, and diseases. Annu Rev Genet 2011, 45:299-329.[PMID: 21910628]

Original papers on the physiological importance of tRNA isoacceptors and isodecoders 
1. Dittmar KA, Goodenbour JM, Pan T: Tissue-specific differences in human transfer RNA expression. PLoS Genet 2006, 2(12):e221.[PMID: 17194224]
2. Pavon-Eternod M et al: tRNA over-expression in breast cancer and functional consequences. Nucleic Acids Res 2009, 37(21):7268-7280.[PMID: 19783824]
3. Gingold H et al: A dual program for translation regulation in cellular proliferation and differentiation. Cell 2014, 158(6):1281-1292.[PMID: 25215487]
4. Ishimura R et al: RNA function. Ribosome stalling induced by mutation of a CNS-specific tRNA causes neurodegeneration. Science 2014, 345(6195):455-459.[PMID: 25061210]
5. Goodarzi H et al: Modulated Expression of Specific tRNAs Drives Gene Expression and Cancer Progression. Cell 2016, 165(6):1416-1427.[PMID: 27259150]

The impacts of tRNA pool

The tRNA pool, composed of tRNA isoacceptor families for each amino acid, has become an important source of insider information in the study of codon usage, protein translation efficiency and accuracy, biological processes and human diseases. Also a codon may be decoded by a near-cognate tRNA with a single mismatch. The cognate:near-cognate tRNA ratios in the tRNA pool are dynamically regulated to affect translation efficiency, fidelity, and transcript stability. Under various conditions, tRNA pools can alter in ways to maintain homeostasis or to favor a gene expression program [1].

Functional significance of tRNA isodecoders

tRNAs with the same anticodon but having different body sequences are “isodecoders”. The highly conserved tRNA isodecoder sequences can exhibit different tissue-specific expression and perform significantly different functions. For example, one of five mouse tRNA-Arg/UCU isodecoders is a central nervous system specific isodecoder, which has new functions of maintaining cell homeostasis and preventing neurodegeneration (Fig. 1).


Fig.1. Mouse tRNA-Arg-TCT isodecoder cDNA sequences. Compared with the “housekeeping” isodecoders, the CNS-Specific tRNA isodecoder gains new functions in cell homeostasis and preventing neurodegeneration [2].


[1] Gavin H. et al. (2014) "Codon optimality, bias and usage in translation and mRNA decay." Molecular Cell Biology 19, 20-30 [PMID: 29018283]

[2] Ishimura R. et al. (2014) "RNA function. Ribosome stalling induced by mutation of a CNS-specific tRNA causes neurodegeneration." Science 345(6195):455-9 [PMID: 25061210]

Human V2.0 tRNA List (GtRNAdb and mitotRNAdb)

1 Ala-AGC-1 Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-1-1/ Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-2-1~2/ Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-3-1/ Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-4-1/ Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-5-1/ Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-6-1/ Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-7-1/ Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-8-1~2/ Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-10-1/ Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-11-1/ Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-12-1~3/ Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-13-1~2/ Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-14-1/ Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-15-1
2 Ala-AGC-2 Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-3-1
3 Ala-AGC-3 Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-9-1~2
4 Ala-AGC-4 Homo_sapiens_tRNA-Ala-AGC-10-1

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Mouse tRNA List (GtRNAdb and mitotRNAdb)

1 Ala-AGC-1 Mus_musculus_tRNA-Ala-AGC-4-1~2/ Mus_musculus_tRNA-Ala-AGC-5-1~3/ Mus_musculus_tRNA-Ala-AGC-6-1/ Mus_musculus_tRNA-Ala-AGC-7-1/ Mus_musculus_tRNA-Ala-AGC-10-1
2 Ala-AGC-2 Mus_musculus_tRNA-Ala-AGC-2-1~2
3 Ala-AGC-3 Mus_musculus_tRNA-Ala-AGC-3-1
4 Ala-AGC-4 Mus_musculus_tRNA-Ala-AGC-7-1
5 Ala-AGC-5 Mus_musculus_tRNA-Ala-AGC-9-1
6 Ala-AGC-6 Mus_musculus_tRNA-Ala-AGC-10-1
7 Ala-AGC-7 Mus_musculus_tRNA-Ala-AGC-14-1

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Human V1.0 tRNA List (GtRNAdb and Transfer RNA database)

1 Ala-AGC tdbD00003849/tdbD00003850
2 Ala-CGC tdbD00003856/tdbD00003855
3 Ala-GGC tRNA-Ala-GGC-chr19-3
4 Ala-TGC tdbD00003861/tdbD00003862

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adobe_pdf_smallManual_nrStar™ Human tRNA PCR Array_v2.0
adobe_pdf_smallManual_nrStar™ Mouse tRNA PCR Array_v1.01

excelAnalysis tool for nrStar™ Human tRNA PCR Array - v2.0
excelAnalysis Tool for nrStar™ Mouse tRNA PCR Array_v1.0

adobe_pdf_smallInstructions of Human tRNA qPCR data analysis tool

Compatible qPCR Instruments:
ABI ViiA™ 7
ABI 7500 & ABI 7500 FAST
ABI 7900HT
ABI QuantStudio™ 6 Flex Real-Time PCR system
ABI QuantStudio™ 7 Flex Real-Time PCR system
ABI QuantStudio™ 12K Flex Real-Time PCR System
Bio-Rad CFX384
Bio-Rad iCycler & iQ Real-Time PCR Systems
Eppendorf Realplex
QIAGEN Rotor Gene Q 100
Roche Light Cycler 480
Stratagene Mx3000
Roche Light Cycler 480