nrStar™ Functional LncRNA PCR Arrays have an outstanding lncRNA content selection leading the field of LncRNA research. The LncRNAs that have been associated with diseases including cancers, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative diseases are carefully categorized and annotated in detail to facilitate the researchers’ study and biomarker validation.
Well-known LncRNAs characterized for biological functions or human disease association are comprehensively collected from the most updated public databases and landmark publications.
Figure 1. Some lncRNAs associated with cancers were collected from Bartonicek et al. 2016.
Figure 2. Some LncRNAs involved in cardiac pathways were collected from Devaux et al. 2015
The LncRNAs that have been associated with diseases including cancers, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative diseases are carefully categorized, annotated and cross-referenced.
Table1. The annotated information includes:
Class based on genomic location: [enhancer, antisense, intergenic, intronic, bidirectional...]
Target mRNA genes
Mechanisms: [signal, decoy, scaffold, guide, ceRNA, miRNA sponge, splicing ...]
Biological functions: [cell cycle, differentiation, methylation, immune, metabolism...]
Diseases: [cancers, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, kidney, diabetes, syndromes...]
Annotation Example 1 - Cancer-associated lncRNA NBAT-1
Figure 3. Information of NBAT-1 annotated by Arraystar is shown in the green rectangular area. The lncRNA NBAT-1 promotes neuronal differentiation in neuroblastoma cells through regulation of the neuron-specific transcription factor NRSF/REST, and repression of this lncRNA is associated with high-risk neuroblastoma (Pandey et al. 2014).
Annotation Example 2 - LncRNA Mhrt in cardiovascular diseases
Figure 4. Information of MHRT annotated by Arraystar is shown in the blue rectangular area. Brg1 represses lncRNA Mhrt transcription, whereas Mhrt prevents Brg1 from recognizing its chromatin targets. Brg1 functions through two distinct promoter elements to bidirectionally repress Myh6 and Mhrt expression (Devaux et al. 2015).
Annotation Example 3 – LncRNA BACE1-AS in neurodegenerative diseases
Figure 5. Information of BACE1-AS annotated by Arraystar is shown in the red rectangular area. The principal regulatory elements modulating BACE1 expression and activity and the role of BACE1 in the production of Aβ peptide in Alzheimer’s disease are shown. These pathways may create a feed-forward mechanism in which increased production of Aβ in Alzheimer’s disease induces higher BACE1 expression, which in turn boosts Aβ production (St George-Hyslop and Haass 2008).
nrStar™ Functional LncRNA PCR Array (H/M)
Bartonicek N, MAAG JL and Dinger ME. 2016. Long noncoding RNAs in cancer: mechanisms of action and technological advancements. Molecular cancer 15: 43.
Devaux Y, Zangrando J, Scheroen B, Creemers EE, Pedrazzini T, Chang CP, Dorn GW, Thum T, Heymans S and Cardiolinc N. 2015. Long noncoding RNAs in cardiac development and ageing. Nature reviews Cardiology 12: 415-425.
Pandey GK ET AL. 2014. The risk-associated long noncoding RNA NBAT-1 controls neuroblastoma progression by regulating cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Cancer cell 26: 722-737.
ST George-Hyslop P and Haass C. 2008. Regulatory RNA goes awry in Alzheimer's disease. Nature medicine 14: 711-712.