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nrStar™ Human snoRNA PCR Array
||384 well / plate
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Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are intermediate-length small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs), ranging from 60 to 300 nt. They are a vital component of small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein (snoRNPs) . In vertebrates, the snoRNA genes are frequently embedded within the introns of protein coding genes and post-transcriptionally processed . snoRNAs are involved in rRNA processing and regulation of splicing, translation, and oxidative stress . Within snoRNPs, snoRNAs complement with rRNA sequences and guide the modification of 2’ O-methylation or pseudouridylation. RNPs that catalyze 2’ O-methylation are called C/D box RNPs, while those that catalyze pseudouridylation are termed H/ACA box RNPs . Besides these snoRNAs, small Cajal body-specific RNAs (scaRNA) in the primary structures of small Cajal body in the nucleus frequently contain similar box C/D and box H/ACA domains. They are structurally indistinguishable from canonical snoRNAs . Also, some snoRNAs can be processed by Dicer and give rise to miRNA-like RNAs, capable of binding to AGO and complementing with mRNA and thus regulating the translation .
Dysregulated expression of snoRNAs in cancer and their roles in metastasis are well documented. SnoRNAs can act either as tumor promoters or suppressors [6-7]. For example, SNORD50A/B act as tumor suppressors which directly bind and inhibit K-Ras and are recurrently deleted in human cancer ; SNORD44 (RNU44) and SNORD43 (RNU43) are associated with poor prognosis of breast cancer ; and SNORA80E (SNORA42) can act as oncogene in lung cancer and its siRNA knock down has shown anti-cancer effects . Interestingly, C/D box snoRNAs are globally increased in cancer . snoRNA expression is also dysregulated in neurodegenerative disorders. snoRNAs are relatively stable and have been detected in blood plasma, sputum, and urine samples, presenting a promising biomarkers for diagnostics and targets for treatment. Studying snoRNAs has become a vibrant field of research.
nrStar™ Human snoRNA PCR Array contains 359 snoRNAs, 7 snoRNA target snRNAs and 4 snoRNP complex members. This PCR panel covers all the snoRNAs distinguishable by PCR. The array is a powerful tool to conveniently and quickly analyze the expression of snoRNAs from sample sources such as cancer tissue, cultured cells and biofluids such as serum or plasma. The coverage, sensitivity and accuracy are excellent for disease biomarker screening and validation.
To ensure high data quality, the panel includes 3 reference sets for snoRNAs and 2 reference sets for SNP complex member mRNAs to better quantify and normalize the qPCR data. Potential genomic DNA contamination is monitored by using the genomic DNA control (GDC).
For cDNA preparation, we highly recommend rtStar™ First-Strand cDNA Synthesis Kit (AS-FS-001), of which reagent formulations and protocols have been rigorously tested and optimized for Arraystar PCR Array system.
1. Esteller M. (2011) "Non-coding RNAs in human disease." Nat. Rev. Genet. 12(12):861-74 [PMID: 22094949]2. Richard P. and T. Kiss (2006) "Integrating snoRNP assembly with mRNA biogenesis." EMBO Rep. 7(6):590-2 [PMID: 16741502]
3. Williams G.T. and F. Farzaneh (2012) "Are snoRNAs and snoRNA host genes new players in cancer?" Nat. Rev. Cancer 12(2):84-8 [PMID: 22257949]
4. Darzacq X. et al. (2002) "Cajal body-specific small nuclear RNAs: a novel class of 2'-O-methylation and pseudouridylation guide RNAs." EMBO J. 21(11):2746-56 [PMID: 12032087]
5. Ender C. et al. (2008) "A human snoRNA with microRNA-like functions." Mol. Cell 32(4):519-28 [PMID: 19026782]
6. Nallar S.C. and D.V. Kalvakolanu (2013) "Regulation of snoRNAs in cancer: close encounters with interferon." J. Interferon Cytokine Res. 33(4):189-98 [PMID: 23570385]
7. Mannoor K. et al. (2012) "Small nucleolar RNAs in cancer." Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1826(1):121-8 [PMID: 22498252]
8. Siprashvili Z. et al. (2016) "The noncoding RNAs SNORD50A and SNORD50B bind K-Ras and are recurrently deleted in human cancer." Nat. Genet. 48(1):53-8 [PMID: 26595770]
9. Gee H.E. et al. (2011) "The small-nucleolar RNAs commonly used for microRNA normalisation correlate with tumour pathology and prognosis." Br. J. Cancer 104(7):1168-77 [PMID: 21407217]
10. Mei Y.P. et al. (2012) "Small nucleolar RNA 42 acts as an oncogene in lung tumorigenesis." Oncogene 31(22):2794-804 [PMID: 21986946]
11. Su H. et al. (2014) "Elevated snoRNA biogenesis is essential in breast cancer." Oncogene 33(11):1348-58 [PMID: 23542174]
• Excellent coverages – For all the PCR-distinguishable snoRNAs, snoRNA targets, and snoRNP members in one Panel.
• Unmatched sensitivity - As little as 50 ng total RNA. No pre-amplification necessary.
• Proven performance - All snoRNAs have been fully experimentally validated with cell/tissue/serum/plasma samples.
• Fast and easy - Ready-to-use format for direct sample application. Just mix the converted cDNA and SYBR® Green master mix to the plates and run the real-time PCR. The entire process can be completed under 4 hours.
• Biomarker discovery- The coverage, sensitivity, accuracy, and throughput are excellent for biomarker screening and validation work.
Fig 1. Workflow overview of Human snoRNA PCR Array experiment.
Compatible qPCR Instruments:
ABI ViiA™ 7
ABI 7500 & ABI 7500 FAST
ABI QuantStudio™ 6 Flex Real-Time PCR system
ABI QuantStudio™ 7 Flex Real-Time PCR system
ABI QuantStudio™ 12K Flex Real-Time PCR System
Bio-Rad iCycler & iQ Real-Time PCR Systems
QIAGEN Rotor Gene Q 100
Roche LightCycler 480
Roche LightCycler 480